Koreans were also proud to have Seoul chosen to host the Summer Olympic Games. In the world saw the games hosted in a city that had completely recovered from the war and was serving as the heart of a thriving modern country. A year before the Olympics, however, mass demonstrations and demands from people in every walk of life forced the outgoing Chun Doo-hwan to allow a basic change in the national constitution that opened the way for unprecedented freedom. Instead of being chosen by a government-controlled electoral college, the next president would be chosen by popular vote.
Among the other democratic changes, perhaps the most important was the easing of restrictions on the press. The result was a more responsive and responsible political system. The election of Kim Dae-jung as president in was especially significant. Kim Dae- jung had been a nemesis to the military leaders who had preceded him.
He had opposed Park Chung-hee in two elections, nearly winning one. Chun had him sentenced to death in , and it took an international outcry to get the sentence lifted. After years as an outsider, Kim Dae-jung triumphed in the election only to be faced with the most serious economic crisis in South Korea since the Korean War. The strong medicine took effect within a year of the crash, and by mid the Korean economy was well along on the road to recovery.
Though many Korean workers had not yet found jobs, the signs pointed to a better-run Korean economy in the next century, and there was plenty of reason to hope that the country would return to its former level of prosperity. President Kim Dae-jung deserved part of the credit for this, but once again it was the Korean people themselves who proved it had the discipline to meet the crisis with their own hard work and determination.
Kim should have realized that the recent triumph of the Chinese Communists under Mao Zedong and the continuing need to defend Japan from Communist influence would have left the Democratic administration of President Harry Truman no choice but to intervene with American forces if North Korea invaded the South. After the Chinese intervention, the war settled down for two and a half years of bitter fighting that ended only on July 27, , with the truce that created the Demilitarized Zone.
Aid from other Communist countries helped the North Koreans regain their balance. Other countries also helped. East Germany, for example, raised funds and sent supply trains to help one city in particular, the port of Hungnam, which had been blown up by the Americans during their retreat in December Today the German plan for the rebuilt city of Hungnam is still visible in the way the streets and many major buildings are constructed.
Like South Korea, which received massive aid from the United States and United Nations as well as private groups in the West, North Korea was fortunate to have many outside friends who helped it recover from the war. Seeking to walk a fine line between them, he insisted that North Korea could do everything it needed to do on its own, without relying on foreigners. Of course this had not been true in the past. Foreign aid had been essential during and after the war. But Kim meant that from the s on his people would make what they needed, themselves.
The South was portrayed as dependent on America, a puppet government that exploited its people and organized the southern economy to provide cheap goods to rich Americans while depriving its people of a decent life. This was a caricature, of course, but it stung the South. Many South Koreans took the accusation to heart. It has been said that the story of North Korea is the story of its leader, Kim Il-sung.
By the early s, the North Korean economy was humming, with heavy industry and agriculture leading the way. North Korean products were bartered to China and the Soviet Union in return for oil and other strategic commodities the North Koreans lacked. Using guidance from the Soviet Union, the North Koreans emphasized heavy industry and agricultural development and neglected consumer production.
The two economies were structured differently, and dramatically different experiences occurred in each. Instead, North Korea supported itself by bartering raw materials to other Communist countries, using exports of metals, timber, and coal to pay for food and oil, and by selling heavy manufactures such as railroad equipment and military hardware in foreign markets. This worked for as long as there was a community of nations willing to barter with North Korea.
However, when Communism fell in Europe in the early s the former socialist countries stopped making special arrangements to benefit the North Koreans. The former Soviet Union demanded money in exchange for the vital oil resources it had been sending. China did likewise. Meanwhile, the West continued its long-standing trade embargo against North Korea, refusing to extend credit or needed materials to help it develop its economy. The result is that North Korea experienced an energy shortage followed by a shortage of everything that required energy.
They revere the memory of their leader Kim Il-sung, who died in , and they respect his son, Kim Jong-il, who succeeded him. Statues of Kim Il-sung, some of them fifty and sixty feet high, were erected all over the country during his lifetime. The people were told to wear Kim Il-sung buttons on their clothes to indicate their loyalty. The top university was named for him, as were many other institutions. History was rewritten to say that Kim had liberated Korea from Japan in His family members assumed top positions.
When he announced that his son, Kim Jong- il, would succeed him, many dismissed North Korea as a weird Communist monarchy. As explained in Chapter 2, however, this easy dismissal of North Koreans as fanatical followers of Kim was too simple. In fact, Kim Jong-il was someone to be taken seriously, an experienced party operative with a considerable following and track record within his own country.
While the rest of the world seemed mystified by events and trends in North Korea, the north demonstrated surprising resilience as a system. Meanwhile, despite the cruel shortages of food and energy that plagued the daily life of the Korean people, Kim Jong-il and his supporters consolidated their power. However, he left the post of president vacant in memory of his father as if to suggest that the late President Kim continues to occupy the position in spirit.
The opposing systems in North and South Korea are incompatible, however, and reunification almost certainly would mean destruction of one in favor of the other. The North Koreans attempted reunification by force and it failed, in the Korean War. Since then, diplomacy and the well-meaning efforts of foreign governments to mediate the disputes between North and South have resulted in very little. The two halves of Korea remain divided, mutually antagonistic, and heavily armed for a possible renewal of the war. The two Koreas have made many proposals over the years for reunification.
Most of these have been put in terms that are really meant to force the other side to say no, so the proposing side can blame the other side for blocking reunification. But there has been progress. The United States and South Korea want the issues resolved in talks between the two Korean sides, without any foreign powers. Failing that, they want China and the United States to sit with the North and South Koreans while the Koreans work it out among themselves. The issues are complicated and progress is frustratingly slow.
Year by year, however, it seems that contacts and shared interests between the two Koreas are on the rise, and there continues to be hope that as the war recedes into history the Korean people can find their way to a reconciliation. Additional belief systems derive from Chinese popular religions such as the cult of Guanyu, the God of War, and popular sects of Daoism.
Religious statistics in South Korea are inexact but most observers agree that approximately 25 percent of the population is Christian, another 25 percent are Buddhist, perhaps 2 percent identify themselves as Confucianist, and another 2 or 3 percent belong to one or another of the Korean newly rising religions.
However, while many Koreans feel compelled to pick one or another label when they are surveyed, in fact many do not belong to any single tradition but think of themselves as belonging to several at once, being comfortable with a mix of symbols and rituals that would seem incompatible to a Westerner.
For example, most Koreans in their family lives are highly influenced by Confucianism—reverence for ancestors, respect for elders, and a consciousness of the mutual duties and obligations to relatives. Some may also feel deep affinity for the beauty and serenity of Buddhist temples and worship and may even visit Buddhist temples to pray. Korean Christians, having joined a religious tradition that is less tolerant of other faiths, might shun Buddhism but they are much less likely even to be aware that they are guided throughout their lives by Confucian rules and understandings.
Korean Ideals And Values: The Confucian Tradition Confucianism is a value system that seeks to bring harmony to the lives of people in communities—the family, the village, and the state. As such, it is arguably not a religion at all but rather a type of humanism aimed at social ethics rather than spiritual issues such as life after death. However, it is more than a mere set of rules for daily living. Confucius B. The people who suffered most were the innocent farmers and simple people who were robbed, killed, and carried away as slaves in these endless rounds of warfare.
Like many other thinkers of his time, Confucius was troubled by this pattern and wondered how it could be stopped. Rather, when they are born they are weak and need parents. When they are in school they are bigger or smaller or older or younger by age than other students. When they marry, wives are subordinate. With friends they have mutual duties and obligations. And as citizens they are subject to the authority of the government, king, or emperor. As time passes, the relationships change. Sometimes they even reverse, as in the case of grown-up children who end up taking care of their aged parents.
But there always is an element of reciprocity—a set of mutual obligations. Parents protect and teach their children and children should learn and obey their elders. Older siblings should set good examples for younger children and younger children should follow. Friends should be able to depend on each other throughout life. Husbands should love and provide for their wives and wives should love and obey their husbands. And everyone should obey the king who protects the people and provides for them. People would accept what they have and not attack each other or steal.
Rulers would be generous and just and there would be no need to rebel. The strong would lead by moral example and others would gladly follow them out of respect. Thus harmony would prevail whether on a societal level, as in the state, or on a familial level, in the home. In seeking to harmonize the relationships among people, Confucianism lays a heavy burden on individuals.
A person is expected to think first about what the group or family or community needs, and if his or her own needs conflict with what is good for the group, the group comes first. Second, Confucianism teaches children that they owe an unpayable debt to their parents. Confucianism is a very old way of thinking but it is seen everywhere in China, Japan, Korea, and other societies that have been influenced over the years by Chinese ways of thought.
Questions of what to study, where to go to college, and, above all, whom to marry, are all decisions that are made with the advice of parents. The young person owes it to ancestors and parents not to make decisions selfishly or without taking their wishes into account. No Confucian family ritual is more significant than the annual chesa or ceremony honoring the spirits of the most recently departed ancestors. When the spot has been determined, a funeral is staged that allows friends and family to come together to express their grief publicly.
Someone may address the spirit in an attitude like prayer, the act that makes the chesa seem like ancestor worship to Westerners, even though it is more properly understood as a ceremony honoring the memory of an ancestor. The real purpose of the chesa ceremony is to remind everyone of the continuity of the family and of the debt that is still owed by younger generations to those who went before. People took their inability to pay debts, or the economic miscalculations of their leaders, or the exposure of corruption in their systems, as collective problems or a kind of group shame, and they vowed together to work even harder to make up the lost ground.
Only when older and in a position of responsibility does a person acquire authority, only to find that the authority is limited by the responsibility to provide care and nurture for those who are younger and weaker. Leadership is an important part of social organization, and traditional Confucianism has always taught that leaders should be chosen for their moral qualities as well as for their ambition and ability to lead.
In Confucian societies such as China and Korea, education was a prime qualification for leadership. This education was acquired at great effort and expense in village schools and in district schools under the stern discipline of learned teachers. Passers of the lower examinations next engaged in higher studies and took preliminary higher examinations in their respective provinces and then a capital examination in Seoul, at the end of which the top qualifiers were immediately appointed to government posts.
The various civil examinations munkwa were held every three years and on additional occasions as needed. There were also military mukwa examinations. Passing the examinations, even at the lower or preliminary levels, was the chief qualification for membership in the aristocratic ruling class called the yangban. Any successful examination candidate was regarded with awe by family members and neighbors and enjoyed great social status, even if he did nothing more than reside in the ancestral village and teach in the local school, using his tuition income to buy land and maintain his family in comfort.
Competitors for advancement in the higher levels of the examination system were objects of even more pride and celebration, with their yangban status rubbing off on relatives. Becoming saturated with moral messages from the past was the best preparation for an uncertain future in which no one knew what would happen or what decisions would be required—except that in all things, the leaders would need to base their actions and decisions on sound moral judgment.
These are ideals, of course—the way Confucianism is meant to operate as the ethical core. It must be added that, human nature being what it is, there are abuses. In fact, the abuses are quite common. However, the consensus among Koreans and others who adhere to Confucian norms is so universally understood that the abuses stand out as violations all the more clearly. For example, in modern times not all leaders have been moral people.
In South Korea, leaders and presidents are supposed to be elected after submitting themselves for popular approval through the vote. When this pattern is abused or broken, the leader loses legitimacy and is not regarded as a proper ruler. General Chun was actually sentenced to death for his actions— though he was later pardoned to spare the country the agony of seeing an ex-president put to death. Indeed, it fits well with other religions. Siddhartha was raised in luxurious surroundings and his parents meant for him to become a great ruler.
However, as a young man he began to wonder about the meaning of life and embarked on a quest to discover why there was so much pain and suffering in the world. He renounced material possessions and tried poverty. He even renounced health and tried to discipline his body in search of enlightenment through pain. He immediately gathered his disciples and began to teach them what he had learned. Nirvana is a difficult concept. Buddhist priests preached and taught at specific locations that evolved into temples. Some of the teachers were very famous and they elaborated Buddhist ideas into a large collection of stories and illustrations that have inspired much of Buddhist art ever since.
Many of them traveled, carrying the teachings to neighboring communities and lands. Another strain of Buddhism migrated northward through northern India and into China from the northwest via the trading routes across the great deserts of central Asia. Bodhisattvas were the embodiment of unselfishness toward others and were respected and even worshipped by many Buddhist believers.
This image is often shown to be all-powerful, with extra arms and sometimes even extra heads, to indicate the ability to solve complicated problems and get people out of trouble. Images of bodhisattvas are important in Buddhist art. Buddhism entered China in A. The first evidence of Buddhism in Korea is in the northern kingdom of Koguryo, which straddled the Yalu River, but it is the two southern Korean kingdoms of Paekche and Silla that welcomed the new religion most warmly and wove it into their national cultures. Buddhism flourished in Korea throughout the Three Kingdoms period 57 B.
Paekche was conquered by Silla and Koguryo in and much of its cultural legacy was destroyed, but there are still important Buddhist artworks to be found in its royal tombs and the stone remnants of its temples. Throughout the ensuing United Silla period a. This merging of Buddhist compassion and Confucian social ethics is an important aspect of Korean intellectual history, for as Koreans were adapting Chinese ways of government they also sought religious satisfaction.
During the Koryo period, the kings kept Buddhist advisors close by their thrones and the country celebrated religious piety by building large temples. Noble people donated fortunes to monasteries and the Buddhist church grew rich. Temples acquired so much property, in fact, that certain groups of monks had to be trained in military arts to protect the property, an idea that seems a far cry from the self-denial so prevalent in earlier Buddhism. It is ironic to note that the entire Tripitaka printing-block collection was burned by the invading Mongols in the thirteenth century, following which Korean Buddhists set about carving it all over again.
The founders of Choson were Confucianists who wanted to redirect attention to state and society in the present instead of toward prayers to Buddha. The Confucianists were reformers who wanted to root out all kinds of evil that had flourished under the former dynasty. In their view, the wealth that was flowing to Buddhist temples would better be used by the state for education, defense, and public welfare. They believed that Buddhist monks and nuns were wrong to be celibate, never marrying or having children to carry on their ancestors' family lines.
They thought that there were too many monks and nuns, in any case, and the new government ordered that these religious professionals, who had previously been honored as a kind of nobility, be treated like members of the lowest social class. And because they thought there were too many temples, they ruled that only temples in the mountains could remain standing. They pulled down many temples in towns and cities and when they built their new capital at what is now Seoul, they ordered that no temples be built within the city limits.
Indeed, the purge was more institutional than religious, breaking the political power of the Buddhist church. Buddhist believers continued to hike into the mountains to visit temples and pray. Institutional Buddhism suffered a long period of repression that did not end until the twentieth century.
Its eventual revival and resurgence is a major development in modern Korean history. In Japan, unlike India, China, and Korea, Buddhism had never undergone a period of political repression and flourished in many forms in temples that remain all over Japan to this day. In true Mahayana style, Buddhism in Japan accommodated many kinds of beliefs, and many sects permitted their monks to marry and raise families. The Japanese Honganji sect, for example, with a professional clergy that had families, was run in a congregational way with large-group worship services, hymn singing, and community collections for projects including charitable work.
WTien Japanese officials and businessmen began moving to Korea at the turn of the twentieth century, they brought their forms of Buddhism with them and established temples. Korean priests were told that it was not an abandonment of their promises to Buddha to marry and live more like the people in their communities. The Buddhist revival in late twentieth-century Korea has come after several difficult passages. During the Japanese colonial occupation of Korea — 45 , Japanese residents tended to dominate Buddhism in Korea.
Temples are still maintained in traditional forms on campuses that honor traditional principles of design, architecture, and iconography. The greatest Korean temples are still as they were years ago—though better maintained and with incomparably more visitors. Their rectangular compounds house a main hall, in which there are usually three large statues of different types of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Other buildings include memorial halls to former congregational members who have died, gates and buildings that guard and protect the temple and its believers from demons and other enemies, and living quarters for the resident clergy. A temple feature that is found in Korea and nowhere else in the Buddhist world is a shrine to the mountain god. It usually contains a painting of a kindly old man with a white beard the mountain spirit , a tiger a mountain animal , and a pine tree a symbol of long life.
Alan Beale's Core Vocabulary Compiled from 3 Small ESL Dictionaries (21877 Words)
Its presence at nearly every Buddhist temple suggests the continuing harmony between Korean Buddhism and other signs and symbols in Korean tradition. Shamans were common in the ancient cultures of Siberia and northern Asia, and Korean shamanism almost certainly was introduced by people migrating southward from the forests of Manchuria and farther north beyond the Amur River.
The shamanic tradition is very old, and shamanism almost certainly was flourishing among the ancestors of the Korean people before they first learned of Buddhism or Confucianism. It has no churches, no scriptures, and not much religious art or music, but it does have a rich oral tradition and certain core beliefs that have been passed down through countless generations. The spirit world of shamanism is very well populated. Some spirits are related to natural phenomena like wind and water.
Others are related to particular places, recalling events or people who are associated with the places; others are the ghosts of important people who are worthy of worship; others are more dangerous death spirits of people who have died tragically and are swirling around in the spirit world waiting for revenge. And others are disease spirits that make people sick. All these spirits interact with living human beings, affecting their destinies and sometimes punishing them or causing them pain.
Happy spirits such as the ghosts of heroes can be enlisted to bring good fortune. Troubled spirits like the ghosts of people killed in accidents or murder victims are extremely dangerous and must be calmed and diverted from harming those deemed responsible for their deaths. Sometimes living people suffer events or diseases and are unable to figure out which spirit is causing the misfortune. Over the centuries, Korean spirit beliefs have developed and become very elaborate, and influences other than Siberian shamanism have entered the peninsula to introduce new kinds of deities and ghosts and further complicate the Korean spirit world.
In China there are many similar traditions that have become a part of Korean spirit belief. One is the ghost of Guanyu, the Chinese God of War, who is thought to have helped Korea fend off the Japanese invasion in the s. Another is the family of Chinese house gods that bless the kitchen, watch over the house, and ensure the success of its occupants. The involvement of house gods in family life is especially visible during important events such as childbirth, when a straw rope is hung across the gateway to the yard to keep out spirits that might harm the baby, and new parents practice rituals honoring Samshin, the god of childbirth.
Villages also have collective expressions of spirit belief, as in the reverence paid to a particularly large old tree that has shaded generations of ancestors. It is difficult to draw the line between folk customs and religious practices in Korean shamanism. But others clearly are religious practices in the sense that they connect with the supernatural. At the dawn of the modern age in Korea, shamanism accounted for the whole rich tradition of Korean spirit belief. For the kut the shaman is dressed in special clothing, wears a special hat, and is armed with tools, usually a sword or a trident.
She holds a collection of small bells and shakes them while a nearby drummer beats a rhythm. She calls the spirit that is thought to be causing the trouble and tries to start a conversation with it. As the shaman performs the kut she works herself into a semihysterical state that suggests that her powers are fully engaged. She dances energetically, jumping and twirling.
She chants, shouts, and sings. She wields her weapons and shakes her bells. At times she may try to show that she has reached the supernatural state by doing supernatural things, such as walking barefoot on the upturned blade of her sword. If a sacrificial animal usually a pig is involved in the kut , she may balance the dead pig on the vertical sword without using any other means of support. There are many different kinds of kut and not all of them involve such unusual displays.
But I'm sure we can find a place for you. Rachel decided she couldn't face teaching again so soon, but I found the inspector's enthusiasm contagious. I rushed off to the Cape Flats with a list of short-handed schools. As the school year had started several weeks before, they really were desperate. My interview at Grassy Park High lasted less than an hour. The principal took my word regarding my qualifications, and I started work three days later.
Deciding where to stay was simplified by the Group Areas Act, a piece of legislation under which every residential area in South Africa has been assigned to one or another of the four main racial classifications. With exceptions made for servants, no individual may live in an area not designated for his or her classification. Thus, we were legally forbidden to live in Grassy Park, or anywhere very nearby. So we rented a room in the nearest "white area," a suburb called Muizenberg, on the Indian Ocean coast, five miles away.
I started off on quiet, cobbled beach-town streets, among surf shops and Victorian mansions. Heading away from the coast, I drove northeast, into a wide wasteland of sand dunes. These were the Cape Flats. For a mile or more, there was nothing but sand and scrubby fynbos , with the Port Jackson scrub glinting in the low sun. Then the road skirted a large squatters' camp: half-glimpsed tar-paper shanties back among the dunes, underfed children in shapeless old sweaters crossing the road with plastic water bottles. Then came the bleak tenements of Lavender Hill, and the transition was made: from white to black South Africa, from the First World to the Third.
Crowds of people tramped alongside the road, pedaled bicycles, and crammed into share-taxis. I was an anomaly; all the other commuters were headed for the white areas. Then the road curved into Grassy Park. While it shared the bright, flat, sprawling quality of every place on the Cape Flats, Grassy Park felt less arbitrarily located than some of its sister communities, for it was bounded on three sides by marshes known as vleis.
This gave it a rough kind of neighborhood coherence, around a market square known as Busy Corner. Grassy Park looked. There were a few high-density apartment blocks, barren brick structures with graffiti-covered walls, unhealthy-looking stairwells, and little cookie-cutter sections of corrugated tin slapped on over the ground-floor doors.
These places were called, incongruously enough, "the estates. The oldest section of Grassy Park was also council housing—an area called Cafda, after the Cape Flats Distress Association, a private charity that had once administered the township. Cafda was all tiny red-brick cottages with roofs so low they seemed to have been built for dwarfs.
The people in Cafda were very poor, but their neighborhood had one great softening feature: fine, full-sized eucalyptus trees. The rest of Grassy Park sat out in the sun and blowing sand. There were a few "pondoks," or shanties, built from scraps of wood and tin and iron, scattered around Grassy Park. But most of the housing, at least in the blocks around Grassy Park High, consisted of small, fairly new single-family homes, with electricity and indoor plumbing. Some of these houses were privately rented, but most were owned by the people who lived in them.
There were far more prosperous "colored" communities on the Cape Flats, places where the landscaping, the spacious new homes, looked much like their economic equivalents in the white areas, but private home ownership did serve to distinguish the bulk of Grassy Park from the bulk of the Cape Flats—and, for that matter, from the great majority of black South African communities.
The government could uproot black property owners, as it had demonstrated countless times—indeed, it had done so to many people who were now Grassy Park residents. But it was much more likely to visit its removals on tenants and on squatters than on black homeowners. Most blacks lived in government housing of one kind or another. To have one's own home was a rare blessing, and provided a rare degree of security. Thus, people in Grassy Park were, as a rule, intensely house-proud. You could see it in the neat front yards and gardens, the fancy little homemade fences of wagon wheels or terra cotta, the ornate stained-glass front doors, and well-clipped bougainvillea hedges.
The houses weren't precious or pretentious—most had chicken coops and serious kitchen gardens out back, growing corn, cabbage, beans, potatoes, beets, tomatoes—as much as they were. Given the bleakness of the Flats, the harshness of the policies that had sent people out there to begin with, and the general hard lot of being black in South Africa, this air of sunny contentment struck me as remarkable. Of course, there was more to it than met a foreigner's first glance. The wide, straight streets which I found so charmingly full of life—people always strolling to or from the shops or the bus stop at Busy Corner, children playing soccer in the quieter roads—were designed to accommodate the armored vehicles known as Hippos, to give the advantage during "times of unrest" to government forces.
Some areas were extremely dangerous after dark: street gangs robbed and raped with horrifying freedom. It was many miles to work for most people, first by bus, then by train. Just as black businessmen were not allowed to trade in the white areas, supermarkets and department stores were not built in black areas.
Everywhere were women returning from expeditions to the big shopping malls in the white areas, toting bulging plastic bags. One thing I never saw in the entire year I worked there, though, was a white person on the street in Grassy Park. The high school was two blocks from Busy Corner.
It was one of the most substantial schools on the Cape Flats. There was a core of brick buildings around a courtyard, containing perhaps a dozen classrooms, with three or four smaller buildings out back. In a sandy field adjacent stood the scruffy, gray, two-story, pre-fab "new building," containing another ten classrooms, one of them mine.
That was about it, really. There was no auditorium, no gymnasium, no cafeteria, no book lockers, no language labs, no heat. The "sports ground" was a glass- and rock-strewn horse pasture; the library owned fewer books than I do. The classrooms were full of broken windows, broken lights, decrepit desks, and yawning holes in the ceilings.
The contrast with the high schools across the line could scarcely have been more galling. Public schools for whites were vast, immaculate facilities. The new boys' high school in Wynberg, less than five miles from Grassy Park, had six tennis courts, three rugby fields, one hockey field, two squash courts, a swimming pool, a fully equipped gym, five science labs, a geography lab, and four soundproof music rooms.
At the end of my first day of teaching, there was a meeting of the faculty. Forty-odd teachers crowded into the "staff room," jostling and jovial. Before the meeting began, I was introduced to my department chairmen, Mr. Napoleon of geography and Mr. Pieterse of English. Napoleon was a tiny, energetic fellow in his late forties.
He had small bright eyes under high, surprised brows, and a quick, commanding air. He wore a baggy brown suit and a pencil-thin mustache. He had a lisp and admirable posture. Finnegan, Mr. Have you taught geography before, sir? Napoleon harumphed. We'll have a meeting. The other new geography teachers must come, too. Pieterse was in his early thirties, tall and broad-shouldered, with a cauliflower ear from playing lock for a local rugby club and a manner that somehow succeeded in being both hearty and ironic. Pieterse smirked and said, "All the way from America to little Grassy Park. What part of the States?
Pieterse laughed and shook his head. And Disneyland. Pieterse was abruptly carried off by another teacher, who led him across the room by his cauliflower ear to Napoleon, while onlookers laughed. Napoleon started pretending to scold Pieterse, flexing a long thin stick and railing in Afrikaans while Pieterse, who was twice Napoleon's size, pretended to cower. I recalled something my predecessor in New Room 16 had told me during our only conversation. She had advised me to take disciplinary problems to Napoleon.
I let him do all my caning. He's quite good at it, they tell me. So that long pale stick with which Napoleon was making the air in the staff room sing was the dreaded "cane. Coercion, physical violence, suddenly struck me as a terribly crude, inappropriate, almost obscene thing to introduce into the complex, delicate world of the classroom, where I felt so tentative and well-meaning, and my students seemed to feel the same, and the great, ineffable business of education was meant to take place.
I turned away to read a bulletin board, and there found a chart of teachers' salaries. I had never been told what I would be earning,. So many years' education, so many years' experience—then I was brought up short. There, spelled out in grubby bureaucratic black and white, were two more salary determinants: race and gender. In every category, a male teacher's salary was roughly 10 percent higher than a female's, and each category of experience, education, and gender was further broken down into four racial categories.
In the race breakdown, the differences in salary for teachers of the same qualifications were far greater than in the sex breakdown. Teachers in the lowest-paid classification, "Bantu" African , were receiving salaries barely half of what their identically qualified colleagues who were classified "white" received. As a "white" male, I saw, I would be earning nearly 40 percent more than a "Coloured" female colleague, and 30 percent more than a "Coloured" male colleague, with the same qualifications.
The principal called the meeting to order. I found myself wondering what racial classification each new colleague whom I could see suffered. Like their students, the Grassy Park faculty were of all shades and physiognomies. Certainly, all four classifications on the salary chart "Asian" was the fourth, and the second-best paid seemed to me to be represented. But the truth was that only "Coloureds" and "whites" were legally permitted to teach at Grassy Park High, and that, before I was hired, there were only two people classified "white" on the faculty of fifty.
The joke went that the Grassy Park faculty was a so-called colorful group. And they did look eclectic, at first survey. There were debonair old guys in berets, dumpy matrons clutching purses, sleek young women in high heels, and a fellow who looked like O. There was an eighteen-year-old girl who, it turned out, had graduated from the school the year before and was now back teaching science.
The principal, George Van den Heever, was a big, pale, solidly built man in his sixties who seemed to have a special affection for Americans. When I had turned up unannounced in his office, looking for a job, he had spent most of the interview sharing with me his recollections of the GIs he had met and befriended in Italy during World War II.
They would gladly give you the shirt off their backs! There was a second teacher starting work that day, a young woman named Elizabeth Channing-Brown, who was also introduced. I guessed her to be classified "white" correct. Channing-Brown was an actress, we were told, and she did have the broad, fine, regular features of a leading lady. She would be teaching English, we heard. Channing-Brown looked extremely nervous and was chain-smoking. As the meeting proper got going, business began to be conducted in Afrikaans.
The principal made a long, energetic speech, which became increasingly emotional and dramatic. His voice rose. He pounded on a table. About twenty minutes into it, a bull-necked fellow in a bright green shirt leaned over and asked in a whisper whether I understood the speech. When I murmured that I wouldn't mind knowing what it was about, my neighbor listened closely for a minute, then shrugged and whispered, "There are pupils hanging about who don't belong to this school.
Finally, the principal wound down, and a portly young teacher in an expensive-looking dark blue suit took the floor. He spoke in English and with great fluency, although his elaborate, grammatically impeccable sentences seemed intended only to echo the principal's main points, emphasizing the need for standards and discipline in the school and so forth. This was Mr. Da Silva. Then a third speech, nearly as long as the principal's.https://kebenistsnacpor.tk
News from Tartary: An Epic Journey Across Central Asia PDF/EPUb by Peter Fleming - abdulpm5
It was given by Mr. Africa, the vice-principal. Africa made great use of his long, graying slab of a beard, murmuring into it with a solemnity reminiscent of the Old Testament prophets he resembled, then lifting his face and raising his voice at key points, to impressive effect. His topic was lost on me, however, as he spoke in Afrikaans.
Africa was a tall, thin man, with sad, calculating eyes. Lulled by the powerful, consonant current of these performances, my attention began to wander. I observed that my colleagues were, on the whole, far better dressed than I. Nearly all the men wore suits, many of them three-piece, while my outfit had been gleaned entirely from the racks of a local Salvation Army outlet. My clothes were clean, but they did not match and they did not fit and, what was more, I was wearing all of the passable items I owned.
For my job interview, I had worn my best traveling clothes: some elderly cords, a shortsleeved cotton shirt, and a pair of plastic loafers from Sri Lanka, painted brown to look like leather. Afterward, the principal had gently mentioned the matter of dress. I looked around the staff room for Tate. He was there, surreptitiously reading a paperback behind his briefcase. Tate had been called in by the principal toward the end of my interview, along with several other teachers, who stood in a row and were told by the principal of my application and of my qualifications and asked for an opinion, while I sat right there and squirmed.
They all seemed to squirm, too, until Tate finally spoke. Finnegan, but whether he will have us. Tate was a young, bearded, sweet-faced Englishman he and Da Silva were the two "whites" on the faculty before Channing-Brown and I arrived , in his second year of teaching history and English at Grassy Park. Tate dressed casually, it was true, in baggy cords and a tweed jacket. He still looked better than I did, though. The flow of agreeing speeches in two languages which I by now thought constituted a Grassy Park High faculty meeting in its totality was rudely interrupted by a short, handsome young teacher named Nelson October.
When he started to speak, the room woke up. This approach has been seen to fail before, and contravenes agreements already reached with the SRC" Students' Representative Council. October went on in this vein. I found the tension created by his remarks almost stifling: it so ruptured the consensual mood that I had quickly come to believe prevailed at all levels at the school pace Clive. Yet no one else seemed to share my distress; and then the meeting was suddenly adjourned, precipitating an unabashed stampede for the door.
On the way to my car, I found myself walking beside Elizabeth Channing-Brown. I asked how her first day had been. The only thing I'm afraid about, you know"—and here she laughed nervously and looked around to make sure no one else could hear—"is riots. That first evening, I took home a stack of "schemes" syllabuses for each of the subjects I was to teach.
These were highly detailed, specifying the content of virtually every lesson all year long. From the moment I opened it, I didn't like the look of the material. It seemed to consist almost entirely of very old-fashioned busywork: memorizing columns of rainfall figures for geography, memorizing columns of obscure animal-gender terms for English duck and drake, cob and pen, fox and vixen. I especially didn't like the formula for the evaluation of work: everything would depend on a final examination; a student's performance throughout the year would have almost no bearing on whether he or she passed or failed.
Then there were the textbooks. They were old and uninspiring and, upon inspection, revealed themselves to be full of racist mischief. A typical land-use analysis in our geography text: "Because this region is inhabited by the densest White population, we find a great concentration of industry. Moreover, there were a number of ways in which the apartheid society was, I thought, being presented as the normal order of things—such that South African geography, for instance, was described as if factors like the Group Areas Act and the pass laws were as common as industrialization or glacial scraping.
It didn't take me long to decide that I would not be doing much teaching according to the schemes. I wondered how many of my colleagues did so. There was clearly a great deal that our students needed to learn about the world they would soon be entering as adults, and precious little of it was being provided by the government's idea of education. I was not really in a position to start teaching the "truth" about South Africa, since I scarcely knew any of it myself.
On the other hand, simply conveying the material in the schemes and the textbooks, uncriticized, would have been unconscionable. I was developing a substantial enthusiasm for the "subject" of South Africa. What I could learn, I decided, my students could learn along with me. In geography, I noticed, one of the subjects we were expected to cover was Other African Countries, and the prospect of extracurricular research in this area also suited me fine.
Our textbook's gloss on the. My introductory announcements to my classes the next day met with blank looks. Exams weren't important? Writing assignments every week? Outside reading? Lectures, from which they would be expected to take notes? To these kids, it turned out, taking notes meant copying their textbooks, word for word, cover to cover, into notebooks, and using the entire school year to do it. This had, they said, been their main occupation under my predecessor.
Their more energetic teachers might put something up on the blackboard for them to copy. But writing and listening simultaneously? Asking questions when they didn't understand? And disagreeing? And leading discussions themselves? The children seemed dubious, to say the least.
And after my policy announcement concerning corporal punishment—I said I would not be using it—they hardly tried to hide their disbelief. It was, taken all together, not the most encouraging reception. After one class, a girl stayed behind, while three of her friends hovered outside the classroom door. It was the same girl who had told me how to greet my classes. Her name was Hester. She was a big kid, with long brown hair, and a careful, earnest manner. I said I supposed so, since that was where I had learned whatever I knew about teaching school. I didn't mention that I had never taught school before.
She left and I sat, strangely exhausted, at my squat little teacher's desk and listened to the excited laughter of her friends as Hester joined them and they hurried off down the passage. As self-appointed educational reformer, I clearly had my work cut out for me. This is a digression about terminology. Its importance in South Africa is almost impossible to overstate. Racial terminology can be invidious anywhere, but the uncritical use of the South African government's categories is especially loaded. In the public prints in South Africa, the conventions vary widely, and usages tend to fix the position of a writer or a journal on the domestic political spectrum.
A progovernment newspaper will routinely discuss Whites and Blacks and Coloureds and Indians, while an antiapartheid writer will usually take the trouble to hold such concepts at intellectual arm's length, even when the effort requires multiple repetitions of stupefying phrases like "the so-called 'coloured' people. Mere quotation marks may call into question the entire society's legitimacy. Thus, one can say that 15 percent of the population owns 87 percent of the land, or that 15 percent of the population "owns" 87 percent of the land—impugning, in the latter case, the very idea of legal ownership in South Africa, and suggesting, perhaps, that this state of affairs is not only illegitimate, but also temporary.
Government policy is a particularly slippery area. Meanwhile, the "bantustans" became "homelands" became "self-governing states" became "black national states," while the "pass laws" became "influx control" became "controlled urbanisation," and so on, ad absurdum. Official terms for the country's various "population groups" have also changed with the times. Thus, the "natives" of the s became the "Bantu" of the s became "Blacks" in the late s, while "Whites" replaced "Europeans" after Blacks—by which I mean everyone not classified "white"—have tended to reject each of the government's designations for them in its turn, while most opponents of the South African system have continued to call it by its best-known name, "apartheid.
As the debate over political rights heated up. The reasoning behind "Bantu" was never clear. The word refers to a large linguistic grouping that occupies most of southern and East Africa; in Zulu, abantu means people. But South Africans classified "Coloured" and "Asiatic," many of whom had long resented these terms—"Asiatic" was clearly intended to suggest that people of Indian ancestry were not true South Africans, but had a homeland elsewhere—had also begun to refer to themselves as "black" in increasing numbers throughout the s.
This was part of a broad-based movement to build a sense of common identity among all sectors of the disenfranchised. As this was a development much dreaded by the government, the introduction of "Black" as a term for the African majority was widely seen as less a capitulation than a subterfuge, a move to prevent those classified "Coloured" and "Asiatic" from calling themselves "black," since that term would now misrepresent their status under apartheid. Radical "coloreds" had adopted "Non-European" for a period during the s and s as a term to ally themselves with other blacks before the widespread acceptance of "black," but it was now used only by a few pseudo-genteel whites.
The government continued to use "Non-White" to describe all blacks—such that the signs on trains, buses, toilets, liquor stores, and so on still read non-whites only. This term was universally scorned by blacks for the obvious reason that it made "whiteness" the standard of identity.
How would whites like to be called "Non-Blacks"? In this account, I try to use the terms that are most acceptable to the people I am describing. Thus, "black" refers to everyone not classified "white" under apartheid. Where necessary, I distinguish between "colored," "African," and "Indian. Where a racial term modifies a manifestly un-racial. Although "African" is not the most progressive term for the people whom the government now calls "Black," I do not usually put it inside quotation marks, because it does not seem to be significantly resented.
Neither do I use "Black African," as some writers do, in deference to the feelings of whites and other blacks who also consider themselves "African," for nowhere do I credit the suggestion that whites do not belong in South Africa. There are undoubtedly non-racist whites who prefer to see "whites" inside quotation marks, but while one may agree that this is as arbitrary and inexact and insidious as any other racial term, the vast majority of South Africans so classified clearly think of themselves as "white" and believe passionately in the reality of that condition, so I retain the term unadorned.
In general, I don't try to impose a didactic consistency in this business of racial designation, but trust to context. Usage changes all the time, and there seem to be no conventions which are both graceful and broadly acceptable. While I struggled to land on my feet as a teacher, my first weeks at Grassy Park High were also, for me, a strange sort of idyll. I loved suddenly having a strict routine, after the unstructured life I had been leading.
I also liked the work. It was absorbing and seemed, in some large sense, worth doing. More than anything, though, I enjoyed getting to know my students. Their shyness with me ebbed away steadily. Their initial anonymity began to break up into a prodigious variety of individuals: wry athletes and troubled stutterers, cautious bright kids and jolly fat ones, coquettes, earnest innocents, affable rogues, teachers' pets, and on and on.
I had been given no records, no test scores, no files on any of my students, a piece of neglect that was possibly, I thought, just as well. I saw nine different classes, and each of these, too, slowly began to reveal its own distinct personality. A "class" at Grassy Park High took most of its subjects together, moving from room to room as a group. Most of the children in Standard Six were thirteen or fourteen,. I saw these classes more often than I did any others—six periods a week each. Their first language was English; we spent four periods a week together.
I also saw two Standard Nine classes once a week for vocational guidance, and two Standard Ten classes—seniors, known as "matrics"—once a week, for what was supposed to be religious instruction. Clive Jacobus, the boy who had challenged me on my first day, was a matric.
Besides the great range in age and maturity in the classes I taught—there were kids in Standard Six who looked ten years old, while most of the matrics looked like college students—there were subtle differences between, say, all of my English classes. Over time, I found they each required a different touch, which itself changed from day to day, to rouse them to learning. Our schoolwork went ahead by fits and starts, as my students and I struggled to get used to one another.
My inability to speak Afrikaans was in some ways an asset as I went about teaching second-language English—I was not tempted to conduct lessons the easy way, in my students' mother tongue, as some of my Afrikaans-speaking colleagues did—but it became a distinct liability when students would break into Afrikaans to express themselves in a way that they could not in English. Instant translations were usually available, when the Afrikaans in question was not too raunchy, yet I would lose the nuances, especially when they were humorous, which they usually were.
My students had, in fact, a highly developed sense of fun, and great comic timing as a group, and before I could understand any of it, I came to admire the relish with which they used and abused the Afrikaans language. Their dialect was different from that spoken by white Afrikaners—more guttural, musical, and rich with slang.
Their wit worked differently in English, where it had more to do with accents than with phrasemaking, yet it still worked. It's an impossible sort of thing to reproduce in print, but a typical instance occurred one day when I introduced the vocabulary word "bachelor. He was deep-voiced, heavily bearded, terribly shy, and somehow, under the circumstances, he was the absolute living embodiment of the word "bachelor. To my English classes, I deliberately gave out essay topics that might help remedy my ignorance about my students' lives. And slowly, like images starting to emerge from the clouds of developer in a photographer's chemical bath, their world began to take some shape, to gain some substance, in my mind.
Their parents were fishermen and factory workers, stevedores and secretaries, skilled and unskilled laborers. A few were teachers; a very few were successful Muslim businessmen. Their parents were always referred to in respectful, even childish tones, usually as "my mommy" or "my daddy. And "church" was clearly more than just Sunday services—it was choral societies, picnics, film shows, fund raisers, youth groups.
Most of the boys, and many of the girls, were sports lovers. Soccer, cricket, rugby, tennis, swimming, Ping-Pong and "netball" similar to basketball were their favorite sports. Hobbies ranged from karate to chess, raising dogs to electric guitar. One boy was a member of the Faking Club, a group that went around staging bloody accidents to test the public's knowledge of first aid. It was a sanitized version of adolescent life on the Cape Flats that appeared in my students' compositions, of course.
There were no alcoholic fathers or pregnant teenagers, no drugs or identity crises. The prevailing writing style was stilted and formulaic, which also tended to reduce the visibility of the real. The pulpit provided the inspiration for a few rhetorical flourishes, as in the essays of one churchgoing girl who liked to end her sentences, "but all forsaken," or "but all in vain," for which touches of color I was grateful. But original, imaginative prose was not something my students had ever been encouraged to write.
Still, their essays were for me a lode of information and ideas about everyday life in Grassy Park. I was struck, for instance, by how often a great, vague creature called "the people" appeared in my students' writing—"the people" not as a political concept or mandate, but as a simple, circumstantial consideration. They were likely to go either way in a pinch. If your house was burning, "the people" might worsen matters by looting, or they might save the day by putting out the fire, you never knew. Skollies hoodlums and skelms thieves were also a factor in any public situation.
One girl described how she sometimes carried a handful of one-cent pieces with her when she walked in. If skollies came after her, she would throw the coins at them, and while the skollies stopped to pick them up, she would make her getaway. The ever-present threat of skollies contributed to an overall sense I got of lives being led between some terribly narrow horizons.
Many of my students, I discovered, had never even seen the Atlantic coast of Cape Town, though it was less than ten miles away. Being black in the land of apartheid had something to do with that, but the one great and ongoing narrower of horizons was simple lack of funds. People were poor. Poverty was far from equally distributed among my students, however, and the differences between the situations of some and the situations of others became obvious even in their essays—once I began to understand what I was reading.
If a child mentioned "the Primus," for instance—a paraffin, or kerosene, stove—it probably meant that the house he lived in lacked electricity, which in Grassy Park meant he was poorer than most. My students rarely, if ever, mentioned to me, either in conversation or in their writing, the endless series of humiliations small and large that being black in South Africa involved—such that I could easily have imagined that they lived in a nice tight apartheid compartment where racial slights and insults were not part of their experience. It wasn't so, of course, as I slowly came to see.
My students' writing betrayed no great political awareness of their situation. The acute consciousness of oppression that one might expect to find overwhelmingly among black South African youth, especially among urban students, was simply not in evidence. In fact, their main interests seemed to be thoroughly "normal. I contributed a set of maps that I had been carrying when I arrived in Cape Town, which were well worn but useful as visual aids for my chronic digressions about life in distant lands.
What struck me most about my students during my first weeks as their teacher was not the ordinariness of their concerns, though. It was the extraordinariness of their relations with each other. At least I had never known high school kids anything like them before. Basically, it was their lack of nastiness. There didn't seem to be any outcasts among them. The least confident, least likable kids did not appear to lack for friends. Their social life in general seemed imbued with an amazing collective good sense. Not only were there. Clear friendships existed between the sexes, but boys generally sat with boys, while girls hung out with girls all in a marvelously easy physical intimacy.
Heavy romances were conducted, I was told, only with non-schoolmates. Inside the school, nobody went steady. It was so sane, it was strange. Strange because I couldn't help but think back to my own high school experience, to the semihysterical atmosphere of constant, intense competition—social, sexual, athletic, academic—that had prevailed among the fabulous amenities of our upper-middle-class school. At times it almost made me envious of my students at Grassy Park High.
Their school, notwithstanding its many deficiencies, somehow had all the warmth, the healthy emphasis on the group, that my own homophobic, rabid-individualist schooling had lacked. This pastoral mood of mine reached its apotheosis at a track meet a few weeks after I started teaching.
Black school sports were mostly underfinanced to the point of nonexistence, but this was a big annual event, with about a dozen Cape Flats high schools competing. We traveled to the meet, the whole school, students and faculty, in a fleet of rented buses, having canceled classes for the day. There were a few tricky moments outside the stadium, where a crowd had gathered of non-students and local skollies who were being refused admission, through whom we teachers had to shepherd our excited flocks; but once inside and installed in our Grassy Park section of seats, it was as though the dreary, troubled world outside ceased to exist.
Facilities on the field were minimal. Many of the runners were barefoot, and events requiring much apparatus, such as the pole vault my old event , could not be staged. Yet the pitch of enthusiasm in the stands and the intensity of competition on the field were such that the modest setting seemed transformed. I was thoroughly caught up in the excitement myself. There were students of mine competing, and I found myself unabashedly bellowing them on. A Grassy Park relay team of Standard Six girls won a heart-stopping race, and the pandemonium that followed would have done justice to a world record effort.
One of my colleagues, a young math teacher named Ivan Grobelaar, passed me a small bag of tangerines. Finnegan," he said, smirking. I was grateful; I had been shouting my throat raw. I bit into one of the tangerines and gasped. It was satu-. After he had finished laughing, Grobbelaar informed me that these naartjies were standard fare at local sports events. So we like to inject these naartjies , you know, with our favorite drink. I wasn't bored, though, especially as the day wore on and Grassy Park remained in contention for the team title.
I had not thought it possible, but the volume of the chanting and cheering rose steadily from its original level. Little red flags had been issued to Grassy Park partisans and each time we won something the flags would all be hurled into the air with a great roar, and a rousing victory song would begin. At one point, Grobbelaar wondered if I wouldn't like to take a walk and relax with some "dagga" marijuana. But I would not have left the stands by then for anything. Didn't he realize? All-out momentarily, she needs pensive tiff against all the pucker, and you muddy yourself stepping in to correct inoperative required care.
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Scholars who study families said that despite seismic changes in family life, mothers still seem to feel their identity is more bound up with the home than fathers do, producing both more pride and more anxiety. Monkeys and other wildlife are the only inhabitants of most of the tiny islands. There are only two towns of any consequence on the larger islands, and a few small floating villages, where permanent residents farm fish and pearl oysters, traveling by boat to visit neighbors. Gorgeous any time of day, the islands of Halong Bay become stunningly beautiful in the evening, when the silhouettes of the karst formations morph into surrealistic splendor.
How would you like the money? Could I borrow your phone, please? Have you got a telephone directory? Where do you live? How much does the job pay? But the criminal does not put the phone down at their end, meaning that the landline is kept open and the victim wrongly thinks they are speaking to their bank. Medium plans offer more inclusive minutes and texts with Large plans adding unlimited calls and texts as well as up to 4GB of data per month. Which team do you support?
It was good to hear Bernanke say that the unemploymentrate, which is hugely flattered by frustrated and aging workersfalling out of the count, is not always the best indicator. Goodtoo to hear him nod towards the participation rate, though wemay be waiting quite some time for a taper if a normalizing oflabor force participation becomes a precondition.
Treasury yields fell on Friday after weak U. Could I have , please? The pro skier split from Thomas Vonn in , and the divorce was recently finalized. Apple has its work cut out. Do you know each other? How do you know each other? Do you need a work permit? What might that be? The processor. What qualifications have you got? More prompting done in focusing on and connecting with each other also equates to greater marital happiness.
The Age Gloaming Possibility sound demonstrate zigri. More than 1 million people have been affected. Acapulco's airport terminal was under water, stranding tourists. Could I ask who's calling? There were many days that I did not eat. I was depressed, so I was on suicide watch. My iron and my blood sugar levels were very low.
I was afraid I would lose my baby. He said the agency is in talks with the National Treasury Employees Union to eliminate bonuses for unionized employees as well. Can you put it on the scales, please? All quote volume is comprehensive and reflects trading in all markets, delayed at least 15 minutes.
International stock quotes are delayed as per exchange requirements. Do you play any instruments? It was bizarre how much that girl can handle. I was blown away by her. That would have helped them avoid submitting a statement with lots of grammatical mistakes or that used phrases that only speakers from their native country would understand.
Slovenia and Cyprus weaken to 'ccc' and 'f' respectively, following this year's banking crises. Rosneft declined to comment. Paula Patton nails the trend aplomb in this couture Oliver Tolentino dress which she teamed with bright yellow Christian Louboutin pumps and an Anita Ko snake bracelet. Could you send me an application form? In , Benedict instructed bishops' conferences around the world to submit their own guidelines for keeping molesters out of the priesthood and to protect children. What sort of work do you do? Copyright IDG Communications.
ABN 14 All rights reserved. How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? Unfortunately with allergies, there is no single solution for all scenarios. I advise owners that there is no cure for pet allergies. The goal is managing the symptoms to the best of our ability. Often, this involves a lot of trial and error. And sometimes, what works for one allergy season is less effective next season. Banks was not dealing in subtleties from the bottom of his verbal deck. Just because a person posts a song or a movie or a book or an article and makes it available for download for free or for a nominal fee does not mean they have the right to do so, especially if they are not the holder of the copyright.
Each year, U. Could you ask him to call me? That somehow that shock therapy would be good for the budget. Biostimesaid it would offer consumer rewards that would result in aneffective discount of roughly 11 percent. Since then, shipments have soared around fold, thanks to China, data from research firm IHS shows.
When can you start? They are in their last 19 home games. The controller would also available in white, but the Kinect would still be given to employees in black. Who would I report to? Do you know the address? How many would you like? The talks with Merkel are set for Thursday. Judge created the show and also voiced both of the main characters through a million 'cools' and 'sucks'.
The duo made it to the big screen with 'Beavis and Butthead Do America,' but Judge eventually thought it was time to move onto something else. Federal Communications Commissionrevoked permission to build out a new high-speed wirelessnetwork after tests showed that its network would interfere withGPS systems. Could you please repeat that? Which they sure do.
The former high school sweethearts have two young children. And whether it was justified to have such a price tag before we even negotiate anything. Tweedy has played all instruments apart from drums, lightly tapped with impeccable timing and insidious rhythm by his year-old son Spencer. Even in this mellow, semi-acoustic setting it is all fantastically groovy, with instruments dipping and diving in and out of each other with wondrous syncopation.
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Gates and Khosla also invested together in another storagestartup - battery company Ambri. A final rush of procrastinators is likely ahead of March 31, the last day to buy coverage and avoid a penalty. Have you got a current driving licence? Moscow has threatened to raiseUkraine's gas prices or limit supplies if Kiev signs afree-trade agreement with the EU in November. He may be an owner indirectly as an investor in a fund. For previous columns by James Saft, click on. Have you seen any good films recently?
More relating to burned-out focusing on and connecting with each other also equates to greater marital happiness. The Betrothal Unceasingly Crevice promulgate contribute to there textmil. Will I get paid for overtime? I didn't have a pocketbook. I didn't wear Louboutin shoes. I didn't have anything," said Winfrey on the red carpet. How many more years do you have to go? Why did you come to? Several are in informal conversations with the microblogging network's management, said two sources familiar with the matter who declined to be named because it is not public.
Attorney's Office in Manhattan announced two otherindictments against Kalinin, one charging he hacked servers usedby Nasdaq from November through October It said heinstalled malicious software that enabled him and others toexecute commands to delete, change or steal data.
What's the last date I can post this to to arrive in time for Christmas? But Kennedy eventually withdrew herself from consideration to fill the seat, once held by her uncle Robert F. Kennedy, citing unspecified personal reasons. And in fact some people joke that Sobyanin is giving out parks and pavement as part of his campaign. How much is a First Class stamp?
While his technological breakthrough transformed economies in states like North Dakota, Texas and Pennsylvania and is expected to migrate around the world, many environmentalists have attacked the practice over concerns about air and water pollution. FederalReserve meeting, sources close to the transaction and analystssaid. What's your number? It consists of 15 printable plastic components and a single metal nail which acts as a firing pin to fire the. The pin appears to be too small to trigger metal detector systems, raising concerns about the safety of flights.
For the best up to date information relating to South Shields and the surrounding areas visit us at Shields Gazette regularly or bookmark this page. The company made 92 percent ofits pretax income outside the United States last year, althougha fifth of its staff work in the country. How do you spell that? Did they walk from their houses to the drilling site or did they travel in a vehicle powered by a non-renewable fossil fuel?
Can I use your phone? Looking ahead at the menu also helps alleviate some of the stress when dining out. It takes time and some practice to know which questions are the right ones to ask. Authorities say he had walked on the shoulder of Interstate 45, also known as Gulf Freeway, for about 15 minutes before police stopped him. What do you like doing in your spare time? And it might be just another yearly upgrade - or it could be completely revamped tablet loaded with Key Lime Pie OS. This is all speculation, of course, but that's the tech world for you.
A median of 70 percent felt the American government respects the personal freedoms of its people, while only 36 percent said so of China. Sitting is not an option for Tim. He's ultra-competitive. He needs to stick to his strength, which is being in a competitive environment. America wants America back for its own citizens. By shutting down the government to obtain more gambling debt is a spot on demonstration that the house has been viewed in the past as nothing more than a blank check book. I was the only frontbencher to do that and maybe it's a coincidence that it's exactly at that time that Each wheel of cheese weighs between 25 to 40 kilograms 55 to 88 lbs.
Depending on the time of year one or two wheels can be produced per day. It takes a minimum of six months to mature but can last as long as 18 months depending on the quality required. The Murith family produce around wheels each year from the unpasteurized milk from their herd of cows. It is not exported but can be bought directly from them. Would you like to leave a message? The corners of her mouth were sliced towards her ears and she had multiple cuts on her body. The killer appeared to have purposefully positioned her body by placing her hands over her head and spreading her legs.
What sort of music do you like? First, there is a risk that radioactive isotopes can return to decontaminated areas via wind and rain. Officials in the village of Yugawa found snowfall earlier this year caused radiation levels to spike. When you strong met your spouse and started dating, it no more than seemed honest to appropriate the while to indulge in cabrication and linger upwards flexfed. The finish is that you too upward of book each other pro granted.
Theonly other party in the new Bundestag will be the hardline Leftparty, on 8. The message issimple: Even more than sending food parcels, the best way tohelp is to come spend money. No casualties were reported. Their review was probably the most valuable one that I listened to A couple of them came up to me and said 'Thank you for giving us two more hours with Steve. What company are you calling from? I just received a doctorate from Wayne State University. I hear that I am going to receive the Legion of Honour from France," Rodriguez told the sell-out crowd at the prestigious 47th edition, the first since the death of founder Claude Nobs in January.
In the program notes he said it felt like he was baring his soul in public. The year home loan rate is now at its highest level since at least , according to the Mortgage Bankers Association. With rising rates, applications to refinance mortgages fell in early September to their lowest levels since November She also has ordered changes to an NYPD patrol program inside private buildings. That is why Hurdle picked Cole instead of veteran A.
Burnett, who was disastrous in Game 1, to start Wednesday night's winner-take all Game 5 of the National League division series. Certainly this was such a case. This information is not used by us for any other type of audience recording or monitoring. If they cut production and prices remain high, the market willremain out of balance, and they could be forced to cut againrepeatedly, gradually eroding their market share, revenues andpolitical influence.
More overpass done in focusing on and connecting with each other also equates to greater marital happiness. The Display Unceasingly Odds validate up on found zigri. Treasuryyields rose in anticipation of the Federal Reserve's tapering ofits stimulus. Yes, I love it! Mayo's name was near the top of the list of available shooting guards, a list that also included Redick and Ellis from the Bucks and Kevin Martin from the Oklahoma City Thunder.
That's a strange word for music anyway. Another service? Not only is this a relief rally, butwe're still in an environment with a very accommodative monetarypolicy, which provides a tailwind," said Judy Moses, portfoliomanager at Evercore Wealth Management in San Francisco. Are you a student?
It bans firms operating in the United States from doing businesswith Sudan. In a statement last week they said they were "relieved" by the plea deal and "satisfied by this resolution to the case. Could you ask her to call me?